In Forging, thermal and mechanical energy is applied to steel billets or ingots such that the material changes shape while in a solid state.
In Casting, molten metal is poured into a mold to produce a component of desired shape and allowed to solidify. This solidified part which is also called casting is ejected/broken out of the mold, thus completing the casting process.
Forged steel is usually stronger and more reliable than castings since forging involves alteration of the grain flow imitating the shape of the part. The thermal cycle and deformation process leads to grain refinement and recrystallization which eventually strengthens the resulting steel product.
Why are forged steel products better than castings?
1. Forged steel products are tougher than castings.
2. Forged steel has higher impact strength than castings
3. Forging eliminates the occurrence of shrinkage, porosity, cavities which are usually encountered in castings.
4. High strength is attained by the tight grain structure of forgings. Thereby, reducing need for expensive alloys to achieve high strength components.
5. The grain structure of forged components offers high wear resistance.
These advantages make forging products better than castings and are the basis of every forging company.